Bloom’s (1956) Taxonomy consists of 6 key categories of educational objectives (listed in lower to higher order): Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. Peter Pappas (2010) has used an updated version of Bloom’s Taxonomy (Anderson and Krathwohl’s Taxonomy, 2001) to develop, “A Taxonomy of Reflection“. The categories include: Remembering (recall of a task or concept), Understanding (determining significance), Applying (making connections), Analyzing (finding patterns), Evaluating (assessing strengths and weaknesses) and Creating (future planning). Have a look at the categories, and see how they are similar, but modified. Imagine how you might use Pappas’ taxonomy with your students. Which model do you find is most useful in promoting learning as a process?
Bloom’s Taxonomy (1956), with revisions by Anderson and Krathwohl (2001)
A Taxonomy of Reflection (Pappas, 2010)
The days of teachers directly telling students how they’re doing is becoming outdated. The teaching practice of today is striving to become much more innovative. Paradigms of pedagogy are shifting. There is a greater focus on process and less emphasis on product. Teachers are asking students to gain knowledge, but to also actively think about how they can become better learners and more critical thinkers. Just as teachers are asked to reflect in their own practice, they are to guide their students to become reflective in their learning. Pappas’ model offers explicit questions to help students think actively about their learning. It is yet one further example of how teachers can promote and develop student reflection within the 21st Century classroom.
In my next post, I will include various resources that can be used for student reflections. Do you have any student reflection templates or files that you would like to share?
Armstrong, P. (2018, July 12). Bloom’s Taxonomy. Retrieved August 6, 2018, from https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/blooms-taxonomy/.
Pappas, P. (2012, August 01). The Reflective Student: A Taxonomy of Reflection (Part 2). Retrieved August 6, 2018, from https://peterpappas.com/2010/01/reflective-student-taxonomy-reflection-.html.